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Showing posts from February 22, 2015


S + V + O || Subject + Verb + Object Simple Past Tense S + Past Form of the Verb + O  E.g. He wrote a letter. Past Continuous Tense S + was/were + V + ING + O  E.g. I was writing a letter.   Past Perfect Tense S + had + Past Participle (PP.) of the Verb + O  E.g. She had written a letter.   Past Perfect Continuous Tense S + had been + V + ING + O + since/for  E.g. We had been writing a letter since morning. Simple Present Tense S + V + O  E.g. You write a letter. Present Continuous Tense S + is/am/are + V + ING + O  E.g. She is writing a letter. Present Perfect Tense S + has/have + Past Participle (PP.) of the Verb + O  E.g. They have written a letter. Present Perfect Continuous Tense S + has been/have been + V + ING + O + since/for  E.g. You have been writing a letter for three hours. Simple Future Tense S + will/shall + V + O  E.g. We shall write a letter. Future Continuous Tense S + will be/shall be + V + ING + O  E.g. She will be co


Readers-Response criticism emerged as a form of literary analysis in the 1970''s, and remained a powerful force in the academy. However, critics have long been interested in the relationship between readers and literary texts. In the reader-response critical approach, the primary focus falls on the reader and the process of reading rather than on the author or the text. Rejecting the idea that there is a single, fixed meaning inherent in every literary work, this theory holds that the individual creates  his or her own meaning through a "transaction" with the text based on personal associations. Because all readers bring their own emotions, concerns, life experiences, and knowledge to their reading, each interpretation is subjective and unique. The central premise of all the schools within Reader-Criticism is this: The text does not and cannot interpret itself. To determine a text's meaning, one must become an active reader and a participant in the reading proce


During the twentieth century new mode of literary criticism developed. This criticism was developed by Ferdinand de Saussure , Gerole Gennette , Greims and Todorov . Structuralists gave priority to how the meaning of the text is produced rather than the meaning itself. Structuralism is a psychological approach that emphasize studying the elemental structures of consciousness. Structuralists view society and its rule as expressions of deep structures, often binary codes that express our primary natures. A systematic study of such codes is semiotics, which was later hijacked by  Post-structuralists  as evidence that language alone provides a true reality. Ferdinand de Saussure was the father of modern linguists. According to him, Sign =  Signifier/Signified . Signifier is the sound image whereas signified is concept image. It is possible to find cultural link between signifier and signified. Structuralists view that every literary work contains a structure. The structure might be


The Nightmare Life without Fuel   is an essay, which depicts the life of this world in coming future when the fuel resources will have reduced from their source. The main thrust of this essay is: what is going to happen if we do not conserve the world’s natural resources. Asimov focuses on a specific problem that will arise by the lack of fuels. This whole world is run by different resources such as petrol, diesel, water, wood, etc. We cannot imagine this world without the use of fuel. In comparison to the past days, we are now facing the problem of scarcity of fuel resources. Earlier these resources were found in large quantity and life style was easier.  The writer has described about the condition of America in the late nineties on the fuel crisis. On the one hand the writer has presented advantages and disadvantages of the fuel crisis and on the other hand he has shown the burning problem of the world which is created by fuel crisis. There are some advantages of not enough fuel


W ILLIAM COWPER William is a romantic poet. Like his other literary works, this is also a romantic poem representing nature. He describes the difference in the environment and natural beauty before and after the poplar trees are fallen down. With example of poplar trees, the poet wants to show the real phase of human life according to rule of nature. The poem The Poplar Field is about natural conservation. It shows the poet’s affiliation towards nature in rural life, which is remarkable for his celebration of the rural and nostalgic tone. The poet strongly rejects the sinful deeds to the natural resources especially the poplar trees in this poem. The poet is in favor of forestation to maintain ecological balance. Deforestation is really a great challenge to the world and it has affected the poet emotionally. Through this poem, he wants to give message that it is not good to chop down trees. The poet also compares the chopping down of trees to a man’s life and death. From t