Skip to main content


Showing posts from May 16, 2021


Frank Raymond LaPena was born in 1937, in San Francisco, California and passed away on May 2, 2019 at the age of 81.   The essay Sharing Tradition written by Frank LaPena is about passing on culture and values from old generation to new generation through oral tradition. For this, we must listen to our elders’ stories. The writer through this essay presents the importance of tradition for the people of this world and its preservation through the oral tradition which is an art form. LaPena emphasises on our traditional and cultural values which are very much important for our bright future. According to him, we must listen to our elders to maintain our cultural and traditional norms and values. LaPena reflects on the issue of passing on culture and values from generation to generation in oral form. Oral tradition refers to a form of human communication wherein knowledge, art, ideas and cultural value is received, preserved, and transmitted orally from one generation to another. This

ARTICLES (a/an/the)

  Jobs When we say what people's jobs are, we usually use a/an . He's an architect. She's a scientist. My grandmother was a teacher. Singular nouns Singular, countable nouns always have an article – a/an or the (or another determiner – my, your, this, that, etc.). We use a/an – the indefinite article – when we talk about something for the first time, or something that is part of a group or type. I saw a good film yesterday. Do you want a drink? We use a when the word that follows it begins with a consonant sound. We use an when it's followed by a vowel sound. This makes pronunciation easier. She has a university degree. It took me an hour to get home. We use the – the definite article – when the listener already knows which thing we are talking about because it was mentioned before or because there's only one of them. I'm going to take the dog for a walk. Have you seen the car key? They go to the school next to the bridge.

SECTION 1: LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT - UNIT 20 : SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (Taking my Son to College, where Technology has Replaced Serendipity)

Answers : a first-year student at a university, college, or high school (iv) having a lack of experience or knowledge (v) without conscious awareness (viii) say something in a boastful manner (i) action of throwing away something (ii) dormitory, student residence hall or building (vii) someone who shares your bathroom/living room/kitchen in college (vi) not able to be calculated or estimated (iii) Answers : Her story is unbelievable in the literal sense of the word. Her story is incredible in the literal sense of the word. We often read the novels of the reputed writers in the world. We often read the novels of the potential writers in the world. The Facebook users are scattered but connected to each other through the Internet. The Facebook users are fragmented but connected to each other through the Internet. Sometimes unexpected events happen in our life. Sometimes unanticipated events happen in our life. He paused, examining the faces of Anjana and Manju with his

SECTION 1: LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT - UNIT 19 :TRAVEL AND TOURISM (Discovering West Nepal : The Wild Frontier)

Find the words from the text which mean the following.  became fuller and softer by shaking - fluffed   sound mental health - sanity consisting of or easily breaking into small pieces - crumbly neither very hot nor very cold - temperate land that does not have enough water to support the growth of plants - arid region only slightly warm - lukewarm  Find the meanings of the following words in an English dictionary, write their word classes and use them in your own sentences.  hazy : | ˈ he ɪ zi| : covered by a haze/foggy - It was a beautiful day but quite hazy. frontier : | ˈ fr ʌ nt ɪ ə,fr ʌ n ˈ t ɪ ə| : a line or border separating two countries - International crime knows no frontiers. lush : |l ʌʃ | : produced or growing in extreme abundance - She glanced around the lush hills. flip-flops : |’flip ˌ flóp| : open shoes - She took off her flip-flops before crossing the river.   altitude : |’al‑ti ˌ tyood| : height above sea level - The aircraft is flying at an altit


Reported speech   is when we tell someone what another person said. To do this, we can use direct speech or indirect speech. direct speech :  'I work in a bank,' said Hari. indirect speech :  Hari said that he worked in a bank . In indirect speech, we often use a tense which is 'further back' in the past (e.g. worked) than the tense originally used (e.g. work). This is called ' backshift '. We also may need to change other words that were used, for example pronouns. Present simple, present continuous and present perfect When we backshift, present simple changes to past simple, present continuous changes to past continuous and present perfect changes to past perfect. 'I travel a lot in my job.' Jamila said that she travelled a lot in her job. 'The baby's sleeping!' He told me the baby was sleeping. 'I've hurt my leg.' She said she'd hurt her leg. Past simple and past continuous When we backshift, past simple usually changes to


Across   2. as is certain to happen Inevitably   4. famous and respected Eminent 6. a temporary stay Sojourn 7. knowing everything Omniscient Down   1. the state of being preoccupied Preoccupation 3. anxious or fearful that something bad will happen Apprehensive 5. a person of mixed white and black ancestry Mulatto Find the meanings of the following words in a dictionary as they are used in the text.  melancholy | ’me-lun,kó-lee | : a feeling of thoughtful sadness, typically with no obvious cause elusive | i’loo-siv | : difficult to describe motif | mow’teef | : a design or figure that consists of recurring shapes or colours disdain | dis’deyn | : lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike fabricate | ’fa-bri,keyt | : put together out of artificial or natural components or parts/construct/manufacture intoxicate | in’tók-si,keyt | : fill with high spirits/fill with optimism resentment | re’zent-munt | : a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will