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Showing posts from January 8, 2023

Chapter 13: Scientific Reasoning

    Chapter 13: Scientific Reasoning •      Science is regarded as one of the greatest achievements of human beings, alongside art, music, and literature. Technology is a product of science, and it has a huge impact on our lives. But the core of the scientific methodology is hypothesis testing, an essential part of critical thinking.   •      Hypothesis testing is a matter of gathering evidence to select the best hypothesis. Hypothesis testing is not just for scientists: in any type of career, we have to solve problems, and hypothesis testing helps us find the best solutions to our problems.   •      Suppose your   mobile   phone is not working . Is the   battery dead   or is the   phone broken ? You try to recharge it to see if it works. If it does the phone wasn't broken. This is hypothesis testing.   •      Or think about   how to improve your health .   What should you eat and what exercises should you do ? You need to gather information and evaluate different theories before c

Chapter 12: Argument Analysis

  Chapter 12: Argument Analysis 1.         What is a Good Argument? •      In our daily lives, we ’ re constantly hearing or making persuasive arguments. We may be listening to a colleague ’ s argument for why we should support one of her initiatives. We may hear an argument for why we should buy a certain product. Or we may need to make our own argument to get approval for one of our projects. •      A good argument is an argument that is either valid or strong, and with plausible premises that are true, do not beg the question, and are relevant to the conclusion. •      Intuitively, a good argument is one in which the premises provide good reasons for the conclusion. This is of course quite vague. Let us try to make it more precise.   a)         Condition 1: The premises are true or highly plausible : This means that if we have an argument with one or more false premises, then it is not a good argument. The reason for this condition is that we want a good argument to be one that can