Skip to main content


Showing posts with the label XI - ENGLISH

Letter Writing

Sample Letters Parts of the official and personal letter:   Letter to the Principal Tilottama 6, Rupandehi June 20, 2020 The Principal, National Sanskrit School, Tilottama 9, Rupandehi Ref: About sick-leave Dear Sir/Madam, I most respectfully beg to state that I cannot attend my regular classes due to a severe fever that I have been suffering from for three days. In an appointment with the doctor, it was suggested that I should take rest for three more days at home. For this matter, I would like to request you to grant me sick leave for three days from today onwards. I know that I will have great losses missing the valuable classes. I assure you that I'll cover those classes and complete the assignments in time. I look forward to your positive response. Thanking you. Sample: Apology Letter Date: Dear (Name) , I received your invitation and I am so honoured to be included among the people you want to celebrate your nuptials. Unfortunately, I will be unable to attend the wedding due

A Letter to the Editor Urging Why Smoking Should be Outlawed at Public Places

 A Letter to the Editor urging why smoking should be outlawed at public places  The Editor The Kathmandu Post Central Business Park Kathmandu Subject: Harms of Smoking at Public Places Dear Sir, I am writing this letter to express my concern over the issue of smoking. The causes of smoking are many. One starts this harmful habit in the company of bad friends, loneliness, or by watching actors in the movies. These smoking scenes in movies depicting cine stars smoking has many adverse effects on the viewers, especially the youngsters. I think that we should do more to stop smoking because it is not healthy for the human body and it will take a long time to get back to being healthy. Smoking is not only dangerous for smokers, but also for the people around the smokers. Additionally, it pollutes the Earth when people throw cigarettes on the ground. So, I believe that the Government must ban smoking in public places to discourage it among people. Banning smoking will save lots of lives and

Professional Email Message Guidelines



Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if  clause tells you the condition ( If you study hard ) and the main clause tells you the result ( you will pass your exams ). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning. If you study hard , you will pass your exams. [1] You will pass your exams if you study hard . [2] ★ If you are writing a sentence starting with if clause , you have to place comma (,) just before the main clause [1] .   ★ If you are starting a sentence with main clause then you don’t have to place comma before if clause [2] . Conditional sentences are often divided into different types. Zero conditional We use the zero conditional to talk about things that are generally true, especially for laws and rules. The structure is:  if/when + present simple >> present simple If I drink too much coffee , I can't sleep at night. Ice melts if you heat it . When the sun goes down , it gets dark. First Conditional We use the first cond

REFUND - Fritz Karinthy

  CHARACTERS : Wasserkopf The Principal The Mathematics Master The Physics Master The History Master The Geography Master  The Servant The Staff Leaderer SUMMARY :  The play Refund is written by Fritz Karinthy , a famous Hungarian playwright in 1938. He is known for his works You Write Like This , A Trip Around My Skull and Professor . The one-act play Refund was adopted and translated by the American playwright Percival Wilde .  The Refund is an absurd and satirical play. It satirises the present-day education system, which doesn’t prepare students for their career. It is full of humour which deals with an unusual situation. The play is about a former student of a school in Hungary named Wasserkopf . In German Wasserkopf means a “Waterhead”, an eccentric/abnormal person. He is a good- for- nothing fellow who goes back to the school in which he had studied and demands a refund of the fees he had paid. He claims that he had learnt nothing at school.  Wasserkopf is

TRIFLES - Susan Glaspell

Susan Glaspell was born in 1876 and raised in rural Iowa. Despite the prevailing opinions of her community, she believed in a woman’s right to education and pursued her studies, enrolling at Drake University where she excelled in the male-dominated debate competitions. After college, Glaspell worked as a journalist covering murder cases. Trifles is based on one case she covered; Glaspell resigned her post after seeing the woman in the case convicted of murdering her abusive husband. She wrote Trifles in 1916. Her play Alison's House (1930) earned the Pulitzer Prize for drama in 1931. Glaspell is today recognised as a pioneering feminist writer and America's first important modern female playwright. She died of pneumonia on July 27, 1948. Historical Context of Trifles Feminism in the early 20th century focused primarily on practical achievements toward the attainment of legal equality, particularly the fight for women’s suffrage (right to vote) and equal employment. This


J.B.S. Haldane (1892-1964) was a British-Indian scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and mathematics who enjoyed participating in war, experimenting on himself, and declaring himself a Communist. His formal schooling was done at Eton College and New College at Oxford. He obtained his M.A. in 1914. Soon after, Haldane enlisted in the British Army and served during World War I . After returning from the war, Haldane began his teaching career at University.   From 1937 to 1950, he wrote a column on science for the London Daily Worker . After he and his wife moved to India, Haldane wrote similar articles from 1957 to 1964 for The Hindu in Chennai (Madras). Haldane's first paper in 1915 demonstrated genetic linkage in mammals. Haldane was a professed socialist, Marxist, atheist and humanist. His political dissent led him to renounce (waive) his British citizenship in 1956 and live in India, becoming a naturalised Indian citizen.  Wh


At his Stanford University commencement speech on June 2005, Steve Jobs, CEO and co-founder of Apple and Pixar, urges to pursue dreams and see the opportunities in life's setbacks -- including death itself. The foremost aim of Steve Jobs’ speech How to Live before you Die is to motivate audience’s members to never cease exploring the full extent of their lives’ potential. Jobs though his speech is able to establish a strong emotional contact with the audience by proving himself a humble, easy-going and humorous individual: “ Truth be told, I never graduated from college, and this is the closest I’ve ever gotten to a college graduation .”  By telling three stories from his life Steve is urging people to pursue their dreams and trust their intuition. In the first part of his speech, Jobs told the story of how his life’s experiences started to make sense in the end, even though that when he was young, Jobs was often unable to find much of a meaning to these experiences. Hence, Jobs’ ‘


Frank Raymond LaPena was born in 1937, in San Francisco, California and passed away on May 2, 2019 at the age of 81.   The essay Sharing Tradition written by Frank LaPena is about passing on culture and values from old generation to new generation through oral tradition. For this, we must listen to our elders’ stories. The writer through this essay presents the importance of tradition for the people of this world and its preservation through the oral tradition which is an art form. LaPena emphasises on our traditional and cultural values which are very much important for our bright future. According to him, we must listen to our elders to maintain our cultural and traditional norms and values. LaPena reflects on the issue of passing on culture and values from generation to generation in oral form. Oral tradition refers to a form of human communication wherein knowledge, art, ideas and cultural value is received, preserved, and transmitted orally from one generation to another. This

ARTICLES (a/an/the)

  Jobs When we say what people's jobs are, we usually use a/an . He's an architect. She's a scientist. My grandmother was a teacher. Singular nouns Singular, countable nouns always have an article – a/an or the (or another determiner – my, your, this, that, etc.). We use a/an – the indefinite article – when we talk about something for the first time, or something that is part of a group or type. I saw a good film yesterday. Do you want a drink? We use a when the word that follows it begins with a consonant sound. We use an when it's followed by a vowel sound. This makes pronunciation easier. She has a university degree. It took me an hour to get home. We use the – the definite article – when the listener already knows which thing we are talking about because it was mentioned before or because there's only one of them. I'm going to take the dog for a walk. Have you seen the car key? They go to the school next to the bridge.

SECTION 1: LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT - UNIT 20 : SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (Taking my Son to College, where Technology has Replaced Serendipity)

Answers : a first-year student at a university, college, or high school (iv) having a lack of experience or knowledge (v) without conscious awareness (viii) say something in a boastful manner (i) action of throwing away something (ii) dormitory, student residence hall or building (vii) someone who shares your bathroom/living room/kitchen in college (vi) not able to be calculated or estimated (iii) Answers : Her story is unbelievable in the literal sense of the word. Her story is incredible in the literal sense of the word. We often read the novels of the reputed writers in the world. We often read the novels of the potential writers in the world. The Facebook users are scattered but connected to each other through the Internet. The Facebook users are fragmented but connected to each other through the Internet. Sometimes unexpected events happen in our life. Sometimes unanticipated events happen in our life. He paused, examining the faces of Anjana and Manju with his