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Joan Didion ‘ In Bed ’, an essay by Joan Didion depicts her personal experiences with migraine headache, which she inherits from her parents. She presents something unusual about the disease in a more philosophical and meditative domain of thought. Joan spends her day in bed there almost five times a month because of the migraine headache. She knows that she is going to be attacked by the headache when she feels some sort of irritation and flow of blood in the vessels of her brain. To avoid the attack she takes some medicines and starts to work. In her earlier days, she thought that she would get rid of the disease just by denying it. Sometimes she even tells lies saying that she did not have the attack frequently. But the truth was that sometimes the attack was quite violent and long lasting. However, she feels good that she does not have any other physical problems, such as brain tumor, eyestrain or high blood pressure. She also tries to do all her normal work in spite of i


-Arthur Guiterman The main theme of this poem is that it’s useless to be proud of our earthly greatness and achievements. These things  aren't  permanent. The only permanent thing is   ‘Time’ . Everything else including our earthly greatness and achievements has to bow before time. “ On the Vanity of Worldly Things ” is written by Arthur Guiterman , an American poet and journalist. He is best known for his humorous verse. Through humor, he has tried to depict the reality of human beings and animals caused by the change in time. It shows the bitter reality that the power of animals or human beings doesn't remain same when time and situation change. We always run after reputation and prestige. We become or want to be great and we think it will remain the same forever. We earn reputation and prestige and we think it will remain the same forever. We earn reputation and we think that the credit won’t be lost but actually we won’t think that is destroyed in due course of time.


-Harold J. Morowitz THEME: Man with emotions, feelings, sensation, love, etc. is the most expensive man. Though human body can be talked in terms of money, human being is priceless.   SUMMARY: On his birthday, the writer got a card from his daughter and son in law which stated that the price of human body is only 97 cents. The writer was not satisfied with this definition of human body. So, he himself started to investigate the thing by himself. He consulted a catalogue which contained the names of the different chemicals which make a human body. The prices of the chemicals were written in the catalogue according to per gram. Some chemicals were cheaper whereas some chemicals were really very costly. The writer started his calculation. He took his weight and subtracted from 68 % of water portion. He found that his dry weight 24,436 gm and by a further calculation, he came to know that he was worth of 6 million dollars. He became very glad at this discovery. He had been


Nepal is a small landlocked country in South Asia. It occupies only about 0.3% of the total area of the continent of Asia and 0.03% of the world. It is surrounded by two big countries of the world in different direction. China is in northern and India is in eastern, western and southern of the Nepal. Nepal is also a member of SAARC and UNO. It has been supported by the other member of the SAARC countries and UNO. The country has got various  land-form  and climate. Various mountains, rivers, lakes, etc. have added natural beauty. Most of the highest peck of the world lies in Nepal. Tourists from different countries across the globe visits Nepal to see and play with the natural beauties and to study about the Nepalese art, architecture etc. Nepal is as diverse in her inhabitants as her geography and climate. It will not be an exaggeration to call Nepal a melting pot of races and tribes. As popularly stated by King  Prithivi Narayan Shah  Nepal is a common garden of four castes and


-Rabindranath Tagore CHARACTERS: King Queen Malini: Hindu Princess Kemankar: Strict, traditional Brahman who is the leader of Brahmin Supriya: Very intimate friend of Kemankar Brahmins              Subject Matter :  Clash between Hinduism and Buddhism CHARACTER SKETCH OF SUPRIYA From the very beginning of the novel, Supriya does not intend to banish the innocent girl. He even does not believe that gathering would determine truth and reality. He criticizes those scriptures which fitted their own narrow hearts. He assures Kemankar that his friendship with him is older than the new religion. Anyway, Supriya deceives his friend Kemankar. Supriya is firm and determined in his action but he only doubts when he begins to debate. As a whole, Supriya performs the role of betrayer because when Kemankar was warning him telling that his heart might be drawn from him by the novelty of the falsehood, at that time, Supriya assured Kemankar that falsehood may be new but t


-ROGER ROSENBLATT It’s very natural to commit mistakes . In this essay the writer gives the examples of great or big persons to show that the tongue slips are not only done by normal people but also done even by great or big persons of higher status.       Types of Tongue Slips:  Mistranslation: mistake in translation Spoonerism (the transposition/substitution of sounds to each other/ accidental verbal error): an accidental transposition of initial consonant sounds or parts of words, especially one that has an amusing result, for example, “half-warmed fish” for “half-formed wish.” Bloopers: Public blunder: spoken wrong in radio, press, etc.  Faux pas: tactless mistake Why do we laugh?  To discover the hidden motive of the speaker.   Relief by a change. Oops! How’s That Again , written by Roger Rosenblatt tries to reflect the bitter reality of human beings when they make mistakes while speaking. The essay deals with the mistakes people make when speaking


Dorothi Charles Concrete Cat is an example of a concrete poem, a poem just giving focus to the physical picture, and not the imagination, emotion and language. This type of poem is written for eyes and not for mind and heart. It does not appeal to the heart because it doesn't emphasize on emotion and thought. It is written in the short form, which is also called reduced language. The writer has used black letters and placed it in such a manner that it shows us the picture of a cat on the page. To make the picture more vivid, the writer has used pointed letters. The words in the poem do not follow the regular pattern of the poem. Words are scattered in such a way that they form the real portrait of the thing to be expressed by the poem. 
 This poem talks about cat and its catness in action. The ear, eye, mouth, whisker, tail, etc. all have been sketched on the page to denote both abstract and physical meaning. The pun (a humorous play on words) in the cat’s middle stripes is


Mark Strand 
 Keeping Things Whole is  a short poem composed by Mark Strand who indirectly pleads for wholeness both in personal life and in society. The poem is against the fragmentation and alienation in our life. This poem is taken from "Selected Poems" published in 1980. The poet through this poem is expressing that human beings always disturb the nature, whereas nature always makes a balance to keep itself intact. The poet appeals for wholeness of nature against its usual fragmentation while performing daily activities in our life. This poem has a deeper meaning. The poet wants to indicate the different fragmentation in our society and in our personal life. He does not want that life should be broken into pieces. It should be taken as a whole. It is only then that our life is meaningful and becomes successful. The poet does know the value of each and every part of nature to present nature as whole. He also knows the value of each and every small components of nat


​ American writer W. S. Merwin in his essay Unchopping a Tree directs us to unchop a chopped down tree to make us realize the difficulty involved in this process. Giving pseudo (false) direction, the writer makes us aware that unchopping a chopped down tree is an impossible task. Therefore, he is appealing us to be wise and preserve the nature. The writer presents impossible example to convey deep meaning. In this essay, the writer has shown that it is quite impossible to give a life back to a tree when it is once chopped or cut. One can join the chopped down tree by using different fixatives. He could straighten the broken branches, and also can erect the trunk. But, he can’t give life to it. Unchopping a tree to its original or natural form is impossible although it is easy to cut down. Thus, in this essay, the writer suggests the people of the world not to cut down the tree. Most of the lines in this essay are directive. The very first line of the essay begins, "Star


S + V + O || Subject + Verb + Object Simple Past Tense S + Past Form of the Verb + O  E.g. He wrote a letter. Past Continuous Tense S + was/were + V + ING + O  E.g. I was writing a letter.   Past Perfect Tense S + had + Past Participle (PP.) of the Verb + O  E.g. She had written a letter.   Past Perfect Continuous Tense S + had been + V + ING + O + since/for  E.g. We had been writing a letter since morning. Simple Present Tense S + V + O  E.g. You write a letter. Present Continuous Tense S + is/am/are + V + ING + O  E.g. She is writing a letter. Present Perfect Tense S + has/have + Past Participle (PP.) of the Verb + O  E.g. They have written a letter. Present Perfect Continuous Tense S + has been/have been + V + ING + O + since/for  E.g. You have been writing a letter for three hours. Simple Future Tense S + will/shall + V + O  E.g. We shall write a letter. Future Continuous Tense S + will be/shall be + V + ING + O  E.g. She will be co


Readers-Response criticism emerged as a form of literary analysis in the 1970''s, and remained a powerful force in the academy. However, critics have long been interested in the relationship between readers and literary texts. In the reader-response critical approach, the primary focus falls on the reader and the process of reading rather than on the author or the text. Rejecting the idea that there is a single, fixed meaning inherent in every literary work, this theory holds that the individual creates  his or her own meaning through a "transaction" with the text based on personal associations. Because all readers bring their own emotions, concerns, life experiences, and knowledge to their reading, each interpretation is subjective and unique. The central premise of all the schools within Reader-Criticism is this: The text does not and cannot interpret itself. To determine a text's meaning, one must become an active reader and a participant in the reading proce