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Marsha Traugot The Children Who Wait is an essay written by Marsha Traugot . In this essay, she suggests reasons for a new trend in adoption in America. Now a wider verity of families can open their house to children who in the past would have been labeled unadaptable. In the beginning of her essay she quotes an advertisement related to an example of a  5 1 / 2   years old black homeless girl named Tammy who is suffering from fatal alcohol syndrome which can stop her intellectual growth at any time.  She is a handicapped black girl and she is beyond infancy. After giving her description Traugot carries out the history about adoption. Twenty years ago or until about 1960 the process of adoption was strict. If a child was not white that would not adopted. Adoption was done only of the child that was infant and healthy. A family having older siblings could not also take a child in adoption. Similarly, only middle or upper class childless white couples could adopt healthy white


William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Elizabethan age was full of writers of songs and lyrics. Many other forms of verse were attempted such as the epic romance, the pastoral, the verse, tale, the elegy, the sonnet and the satire. The important song writers of the age of Elizabeth are—Christopher Marlowe, Drayton, Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, and Edward Spenser. William Shakespeare is most widely quoted author in history, and his plays have probably been performed more times than those of any other dramatist. He has written 154 sonnets in English. The sonnets of Shakespeare were published in 1609. Shakespearean sonnet has three stanzas of four lines and in the end a couplet. Its rhyme scheme is abab, cdcd, efef, gg. In Shakespeare’s sonnets, falling in love can have painful emotional and physical consequences. The first 126 Sonnets are apparently addressed to a handsome young nobleman, presumably the author’s patron (supporter). The next 28 sonnets are written to a “dark lady”, whom t


Simone de Beauvoir Simone de Beauvoir is recognized as a theorist close to the beginning of the second wave in the development of Feminist Theory.  De Beauvoir authored the text,  The Second Sex  in 1949, and the reader will recognize that much of the writing remains relevant in the twenty-second century.  The essay Woman as Other has been extracted from the book The Second Sex . Through this essay, Beauvoir identifies patriarchy against which women is defined. She thinks that women is not born but made. De Beauvoir’s primary thesis is that men fundamentally oppress women by characterizing them, on every level, as the  other , defined exclusively in opposition to men. Man occupies the role of the self, or subject; woman is the object, the other. Man creates, acts, invents; she waits for him to save her. De Beauvoir states that while it is natural for humans to understand themselves in opposition to others, this process is flawed when applied to the genders. In defining w


Susanne K. Langer From: Problems of Art Susanne Langer , one of the greatest philosophers in American tradition, was recognised for her understanding of philosophy, poetry, music, and language. Langer's work demonstrates, among other philosophical values, a broad sense of inquiry into and observations of the human experience. Her most widely read and discussed book is  Philosophy in a New Key  (1942), which is a systematic theory of art that became a standard text in numerous undergraduate philosophy classes. Susanne Langer's work is not easy to summarise, but one of her major ideas was that works of art are expressive forms, or "iconic symbols" of emotions. Expressiveness is a long essay taken out from ' Problems of Art '. This essay is important because it attempts to establish the ways in which a work of art will express emotion. She values the total experience that the work of art presents about the writer’s feelings. Art is a broad ter


John Lukacs (1885-1971) John Lukacs is among the most accomplished historians of his generation. He has written more than twenty books and hundreds of essays and reviews. In the essay Fictio or the Purpose of Historical Statements John Lukacs critically analyses about fiction, facts and truth. The same fact can be presented in different styles. By giving plausible (arguable) examples, Lukacs examines the ideas. According to Lukacs fact is dependent to other facts. No fact is absolute. Facts and truths are determined by purpose, context and expressions. For him, a fact is not separable from other facts . Fact is supposed to base on reality and truth. A fact has to be compared and contrasted with other facts. The value of facts also depends on their relationship to accuracy. When a fact is more accurate, it becomes more theoretical. The third element that is required for fact is its association. When one fact is associated with other facts, it may be judged well. Lukacs explain


Virginia Woolf “Do not dictate to your author; try to become him. Be his fellow-worker and accomplice.” How One Should Read a Book is an essay about reading strategies written by Virginia Woolf. The essay present about reading novels, biographies and poetry. The essay has written the title in the form of question though it is not the question to the readers. Different dramas, poems, novels were written in different language by man and women of different ages. After separating genres, we have to read the books. Novels and poetry may be only imaginative, biography may be flattering and history may contain prejudice. That's why the readers should keep in mind about the generic differences. Writer like Hardy, Austen present their perspective through their one vision. Reading is a process through which readers get pleasure and form their judgments. It is a lifelong process because the expectations of reader changes. Writers always catch the floating movements. They ca

RELIGION AND SCIENCE - Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) < English Philosopher, Mathematician, and Essayist. > Alfred North Whitehead believed that the future course of world history depends upon people’s decisions as to the relationship between science and religion. In fact, the force of religious intuitions and the force of scientific endeavours are the two most powerful forces in history. Whitehead’s solution to conflicts between science and religion was to suggest modifications in both science and religion, as each has been traditionally understood so that an inclusive alternative worldview might be constructed. He turned to speculative philosophy for this constructive task. Whitehead proposed that philosophy attains its chief importance by fusing religion and science into one rational scheme of thought. Whitehead is counted among the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century. His philosophy of organisms is recognised as an outstanding contribution to Western thought. Whitehead's m