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Chapter 20: Cognitive Biases

  Chapter 20: COGNITIVE BIASES •      Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from rationality or good judgment that can occur in our thinking or decision-making processes. These biases can affect our perception, interpretation, and memory of information, and can lead to errors or distortions in our reasoning. •      There are many different types of cognitive biases, including confirmation bias (the tendency to seek out or interpret information in a way that confirms our pre-existing beliefs), anchoring bias (the tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information encountered when making decisions), availability bias (the tendency to give greater weight to more recent or easily recalled information), and many others. •      These biases can be both conscious and unconscious and can impact our behaviours and decision-making in a variety of contexts, including personal, professional, and societal settings. Being aware of these biases and actively working to miti

Chapter 8: Theory and Style: Next Steps

  Chapter 8:  THEORY   AND   STYLE :  NEXT   STEPS 1.       LINGUISTICS AND LITERARY CRITICISM •     Linguistics  is the scientific study of language, including its structure, development, and use. It encompasses the study of the sounds (phonetics and phonology), the words (morphology), the sentences (syntax), and the meaning (semantics) of language, as well as the social and cultural contexts in which language is used. •     Literary criticism , on the other hand, is the analysis and interpretation of literary works, including their themes, characters, plot, and style. It seeks to understand and evaluate literature from various perspectives, including historical, cultural, and theoretical frameworks. •     Linguistics and literary criticism intersect (come together) in various ways. Linguistics provides tools and methods for analysing language use in literary works, such as the use of literary devices like metaphor and allusion, and the relationship between language and meaning. Liter