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In the essay, "Two Long Term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees" a noted scholar Moti Nissani discusses two inter related problems: overpopulation and deforestation. With their impact showing several consequences of the twin problems, the writer makes us aware about our duties to solve them and to save the bio-sphere for our future generation.

The essay starts with the world’s scientists concern over the earth’s environment. It is becoming much polluted. The air, water, and soil, which are regarded to be the most important things for the existence of any living species, are becoming poisonous and many kinds of plants and animals have already disappeared. Moti Nissani brings the issue of 1500 world's scientists' The World's Scientists Warning to Humanity and the joint statement of U.S. National Academy and Royal Society of London regarding the condition of the present world. They are worried about the present condition of the world. According to the essay, growth rate of population of Nepal is 2.5% because the average Nepali women gives birth to 5 children. In 1951 the population of Nepal was 9 million but less than a half century later the population rose to 21 millions. If this rate is not checked, the total population of Nepal will be doubled in just 28 years. With the overpopulation, Nepal has to face all kinds of problems. Therefore, the future of Nepal seems to be very dark if the population is not controlled in time.

At the present time overpopulation and deforestation have become the great challenge to the whole humanity. Now, the population of the world is increasing rapidly due to the nutrition, modern medicine, lower death rate, modernization and sanitation (The state of being clean and conducive to health). Every year, in fact, the world's population grows by more than 80 million people. In every one hour 10,000 people are added to our total population. More people will need more food. To produce more food, we have to cut down the trees. Both town and villages will be over crowed and the quality of life will fall down. The land, water and air will be polluted. The environment will be polluted. At the present time, due to the over population humans have been facing different kinds of diseases like cancer, asthma, hearing loss problem, contract epidemics (महामारी) and so many others. On the other hand, due to deforestation the world is loosing creatures such as salamanders (Reptilian creature supposed to live in fire), species of frogs, penguins, etc. Similarly, the deforestation is bringing the frightening problems as desertification, acid rain, loss of wild species and plants, ozone layer depletion and green house effects, and depletion (reduction) of nonrenewable resources like petrol, natural gas, helium etc.

However, there are many remedies to solve these long term problems. We can improve the situation by controlling population and pollution, many factors such as modernization, effective family planning measures equal economic, educational and legal opportunities to woman will help to control the rapid population growth. In order to set this world for our future generation, we must save forest by reducing population pressure on it through effective family planning measures and educating people. We may also save the forest by making effective and strict laws with a provision to impose high tax on wood product and provision of incentive for pressuring forest. There should be a provision in the law to punish severely for destroying forest.

Beside this each person should also be conscious about the environmental and ecological change. People should be given education on deforestation and overpopulation. The government should invests lot of money for effective family planning to control the over population. There should be media campaigns to create awareness about the effects of overpopulation and deforestation. There should be greater efficiency in the use of wood - products and recycling. Reforestation and massive tree plantation can be done in the bare lands. People should make smokeless Chulo that needs less fire woods. Moreover, Nissani states that we have to be conscious ourselves. He says that we know how and why to control overpopulation and deforestation but still we are lacking this knowledge to convert in to the reality.

Important Questions

  • How can we save our forests? 
  • What leads Moti Nissani to the belief that the world is facing an overpopulation problem? 
  • Explain the links between overpopulation and deforestation. 
  • What are the causes, consequences and cures of over population and deforestation?


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