This blog is created as a source of reference notes to the students of Intermediate, Bachelor's and Master's Degree. It is requested to all of the viewers to refer to the original text for the best outcome. The contents of this blog are presented on the perspective of the writer's understanding, so summaries are likely to be incomplete and sometimes even misleading.
Please COPY and DOWNLOAD available notes at your own risks.
Search This Blog
SOURCES OF ENERGY
Alternative energy is
the complex of the sources of energy which can substitute the existing
exhausting and harmful sources of energy and prevent the possible energy
crisis. The problem of alternative energy is probably the most troublesome and
thought-provoking one, because people all over the world understand that the
current supplies of mineral resources and sources of energy (oil, gas, coal)
will be exhausted in no more than fifty years and the humanity will remain
without energy and it will be treated like the collapse of the human
civilization. The current situation of the development of the alternative
sources of energy is connected not only with the prevention of the energy
crisis, but with the unfavorable ecologic condition of the natural environment.
The modern sources of energy (oil, gas and coal) are not only very expensive
bur also harmful for the natural environment, because they pollute water, air
and soil and cause harm to the human health and life. The wastes and pollutants
released during the processing of oil and coal are extremely contaminative and
the humanity should think about the alternative energy which would be safe,
cheap and inexhaustible.
The most effective
alternative sources of energy are: the power of the wind, the solar energy and
the power of the water. The effectiveness of numerous wind farms and solar
energy farms cannot be overestimated. The power of the wind is inexhaustible,
as well as the rays of the Sun and the power of seas and oceans. The human
being just has to learn to use these powers of the nature in the right way and
it will help people live in harmony with nature and reduce their harmful effect
on the environment.
Alternative energy is
the only solution to the problem of energy crisis which can occur very soon.
When the student is working a persuasive essay, he is supposed to analyze the
issue on alternative energy in detail and convince the audience in the
truthfulness of his arguments. One is expected to prepare a quality description
of the problem on alternative energy, provide the list of the advantages or
disadvantages proving the usefulness of the alternative energy or its
ineffectiveness. The essay has a subjective tone, so the student does not have
to bother about the differences in the opinions of various people.
It is hard to live
without Energy, but it is impossible to find another planet to live in. Energy
is everything. It comes in many forms such as heat, electricity, light,
mechanical energy. Conventional energy sources such as coal and oil are the main
contributors to the global warming. Furthermore, these fossil fuels are not
renewable, which means one day we will run out of them. The good news is
alternative sources of energy can replace the current technologies we are
using. These renewable energy sources are environment friendly as they emit
less carbon dioxide, compared to fossil fuels. There are many alternative
sources of energies that harness natural forces and resources such as solar
power, wind power, and geothermal energy.
prospective solar power is the best alternative source of energy. It is the
light and the heat from the sun which is harnessed to generate power. It is
created by converting the sun rays into electricity using solar panels.
Additionally, solar panels change the sun light that hit it into heat, which is
used to heat homes, water, swimming pools, and for cooking. There is also
another energy sources that is safe and natural in the same time.
Wind power is one of
the oldest forms of energy that benefited mankind so greatly. It is the use of
the wind power to produce electricity. In the past, people used it to navigate
water, to pump water and to dry clothes. Today, we use it to produce
electricity. In this technology, when the wind blows, it rotates the blades of
the wind turbines. This rotation runs electric generators. There is one more
source of energy which can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels.
Geothermal energy is
one of the main sources of alternative energy. It is the heat of the earth,
which is continuously produced in the core of the earth. It is very beneficial
to the earth and it atmosphere as it doesn't produce any pollution. In this
technology, Wells are drilled to pump heated water and steam. Then, that steam
and heated water are purified to drive wind turbines which produce electricity.
It works best in sunny climate regions.
Energy is everything.
It can be found in many forms. Fossil fuels cause many environmental issues due
to the emission of carbon dioxide. However, alternative source of energy can
substitute traditional energy sources with almost no negative effects on the
environment. One of the alternative energy sources is solar power. In smaller
scale, it is used to heat houses, water and in cooking. In larger scale, it is
used to generate electricity. Another source is wind power. Older wind turbines
used to grind crops, now to run generators and generate electricity. A third
source is geothermal energy, in which, heated water and steam are used to run
ATTACKS: DO NOT CALL CHARLIE HEBDO KILLERS 'TERRORISTS', BBC SAYS
The Islamists who committed
(bound or obligated) the Charlie Hebdo massacre in Paris should be not
be described as “terrorists” by the BBC, a senior executive at the
corporation has said.
the head of BBC Arabic, the largest of the BBC’s non-English language
news services, said the term “terrorist” was too “loaded” to describe the
actions of the men who killed 12 people in the attack on the French satirical
Mr. Kafala, whose BBC
Arabic television, radio and online news services reach a weekly audience of 36
million people, told The Independent: “We try to avoid
describing anyone as a terrorist or an act as being terrorist. What we try to
do is to say that ‘two men killed 12 people in an attack on the office of a
satirical magazine’. That’s enough, we know what that means and what it is.”
Mr. Kafala said:
“Terrorism is such a loaded word. The UN has been struggling for more than a
decade to define the word and they can’t. It is very difficult to. We know what
political violence is, we know what murder, bombings and shootings are and we
describe them. That’s much more revealing, we believe, than using a word like
terrorist which people will see as value-laden.”
Of the Paris case, Mr.
Kafala said: “We avoid the word terrorists. It’s a terrorist attack,
anti-terrorist police are deployed on the streets of Paris. Clearly all the
officials and commentators are using the word so obviously we broadcast that.”
While Mr. Kafala’s
comments may surprise some, they are in line with the BBC’s editorial
guidelines on reporting terrorism. When reporting an attack, the BBC guidelines
say it should use words which specifically describe the perpetrator (culprit)
such as “bomber”, “attacker”, “gunman”, “kidnapper” or “militant”.
26/11 Attacks Could Have Been Averted By Intelligence-Sharing Between US, UK,
among the intelligence agencies of India, the U.S. and UK could have averted
the November 2008 terrorist attacks in the Indian city of Mumbai, which killed
over 160 people, an investigation conducted by The New York Times revealed.
According to the
investigation, intelligence agencies from the three nations had been monitoring
the activities of several operatives of Lashkar-e-Taiba -- the Pakistan-based
militant group that carried out the attacks over a span of three days in Mumbai
-- since the beginning of 2008. However, the agencies failed to piece
together disparate pieces of intelligence and share information until after the
attacks had started, according to the report.
The attacks, which
lasted about three days before all the militants were either killed or
arrested, targeted several high-profile locations in the city, including the
main railway terminus, the iconic Taj Mahal Palace hotel near the Gateway of
India monument, another five-star hotel, and a Jewish synagogue (temple) and
cultural center run by an American rabbi (title of respect esp. among Jews) and
his wife, both of whom were among those killed in the attacks.
According to the
report, the intelligence agencies of the three countries had enough information
among them to prevent the attacks in Mumbai. However, they failed to piece (assemble)
together the complete picture, making it one of the "most devastating
near-misses in the history of spy craft."
Nepal Maoist leader Prachanda
Critics say that the
former rebel leader had not realized the extent of his party's unpopularity
since its dramatic election win in 2008 and was taken by surprise that the
Maoists appeared to have been relegated to third place.
The Maoist leader
Prachanda, and some of his top supporters were accused of abandoning their
proletarian principles by embracing opulent (deluxe) lifestyles - in some cases
complete with palatial (impressive) residences, luxury cars and private medical
Prachanda, who will be
61 in 2015, is a former agriculture student and school teacher, who was born in
the Annapurna region of Nepal. His natural gift for military leadership enabled
him to transform the Maoists from being a poorly armed rag-tag outfit into one
of South Asia's most feared rebel groups.
More than 13,000 people
died in the civil war in the impoverished (Poor enough to need help from others)
Himalayan nation, which culminated (climax/end) in the king releasing his
absolute powers and being forced to give up his throne in June 2008.
Up until then, very
little was known about Prachanda. Nepalese knew him from only a couple of
photographs. He was rarely seen in public and was constantly slipping between
India and Nepal to escape the authorities.
Summary : Virginia Adeline Woolf (1882-1941) was an English novelist and essayist, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. She was one of the leaders in the literary movement of modernism. The speech of Professions for Women was given in 1931 to the Women’s Service League by Virginia Woolf. It was also included in Death of a Moth and Other Essays in 1942. Throughout the speech, Virginia Woolf brings forward a problem that is still relevant today: gender inequality . Woolf’s main point in this essay was to bring awareness to the phantoms (illusions) and obstacles women face in their jobs. Woolf argues that women must overcome special obstacles to become successful in their careers. She describes two hazards she thinks all women who aspire to professional life must overcome: their tendency to sacrifice their own interests to those of others and their reluctance (hesitancy) to challenge conservative male attitudes . She starts her
ONLY DAUGHTER -Sandra Cisneros Born into a working-class family in 1954, Sandra Cisneros was the daughter of a Mexican-American mother and a Mexican father. Only Daughter originally appeared in Glamour magazine in 1990. Cisneros through this essay describes the difficulties of growing up as the only daughter in a Mexican-American family of six sons. Historically, sons have been valued over daughters in most cultures, as reflected in the following proverbs: “A house full of daughters is like a cellar full of sour beer” (Dutch); “Daughters pay nae [no] debts” (Scottish); “A stupid son is better than a crafty daughter” (Chinese); and “A virtuous son is the sun of his family” (Sanskrit). Contemporary research suggests that while the preference for male children has diminished considerably in industrialised nations, a distinct preference for sons continues among many cultures in Asia and the Middle East, raising concerns among medical ethicists worldwide. And, even within the more tradi