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Unit 11: Describing an Object or a Place: Talking about Present

Excursion: a journey taken for pleasure

Orchard: Garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth

Nectar: Fruit juice especially when undiluted

Prickly: Very irritable, Having or covered with protective barbs or quills or spines or thorns or setae etc.

Plummy: very desirable

Pulpy:  Like a pulp or overripe; not having stiffness 

Spurts: The occurrence of a sudden discharge (as of liquid)/discharge 

Bumpy: Covered with or full of bumps

  1. Enrich Your Vocabulary (page 126)
    Find the words from the text to describe an orange for each set.
    test- delicious, sweet, sour, juicy
    tempting, large, small, green, ripe, attractive, plummy
    prickly, pulpy, hard, bumpy
    sweet, fragrant, pleasant
  2. Read and Match (page 127)
    Match the nouns in column ‘A’ with their suitable describing words in column ‘B’.
    1. orchard - heaven like                                       
    2. oranges trees - big and small                         
    3. orange leaves - green                               
    4. orange juice- honey-filled nectar                                  
    5. oranges - plummy and pulpy     
  1. Following sentences are incorrect. Read the text again and correct them.
  1. The writer is fond of eating oranges.
  2. Her brother enjoyed the oranges.
  3. Orange trees were filled with oranges.
  4. The mother advised them not to eat unripe oranges because they could be sour.
  5. While returning the writer’s eyes caught sight of a large and tempting orange.
  1. Read the text again, and answer these questions.
  1. Where did the writer go in the winter vacation?
    Ans: The writer went to Syangja in the winter vacation.
  2. Imagine that you were in that place. How would you describe the sight, smell, taste and texture of the oranges?
    Ans: Many large and small; green and ripe oranges were blooming and shining. I felt as if the big and small trees were welcoming us bowing with juicy sweet oranges, green leaves and prickly thorns. An attractive orange, that was the size of a cricket ball, seized my eyes. It was plummy and pulpy. Although the prickly stem ends scared me, I could imagine the juice inside the oranges. I smelt it and imagined the sweet honey filled nectar inside.
  3. What advice did the mother give to her children?
    Ans: The mother suggested her children not to pick the hard and green oranges as they could be sour.
  4. If you were the writer’s brother, what would you do in the orchard? Would you do the same as he did or you would do something else? Write in detail.
    Ans: First, I would identify the ripe oranges with the help of my mother. Then, I would smell them as I love their fragrance. After that, I enjoyed the oranges sitting in a corner which was just beside the orange tree. While returning home, I would fill my bag with large and juicy oranges.
  5. What does the writer remember all the time?
    Ans: The writer remembers the delicious oranges from their natural place.

Grammar (page 128)

Relative Pronouns

The relative pronouns are:













We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses. Relative clauses tell us more about people and things:

We use:

  • who and whom for people
  • which for things
  • that for people or things.

There are two kinds of relative clauses:

  1. We use relative clauses to make clear which person or thing we are talking about:
    Marie Curie is the woman who discovered radium.
    This is the house
    which Ram built.
    In this kind of relative clause, we can use that instead of who or which:
    Marie Curie is the woman that discovered radium.
    This is the house
    that Ram built.
    We can leave out the pronoun if it is the object of the relative clause:
    This is the house
    that Jack built. (that is the object of built)
  2. We also use relative clauses to give more information about a person, thing or situation:
    Hari, who is 76, has just retired.
    We had dosa,
    which I always enjoy.
    I met Riya in town yesterday, which was a nice surprise.
    With this kind of relative clause, we use commas (,) to separate it from the rest of the sentence.


  1. Rewrite the following sentences choosing the correct relative pronouns from the brackets: (page 128)
    1. People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones at others.
    2. That is the building where they shot the film ‘Hostel’.
    3. The dress which Ravi is wearing is very expensive.
    4. Look at the one horned rhinos which are drinking in the river.
    5. Can I borrow the book that was written by Mr Pradhan?
  1. Study the following examples and join the pairs of sentences into one using suitable relative pronouns: (page 129)

Example: You were helping the teacher. I wanted to help her.

You were helping the teacher whom I wanted to help.

  1. I used to live in Banepa where I was born and went to school.
  2. He bought the latest model of iPod which Aasif wanted.
  3. That’s the problem which we solved together.
  4. Do you know the people who work for the development of our nation?
  5. He collected the information which he downloaded from the Internet.
  6. Tell me about your friends who can help you in your hard times.
  7. What’s the name of the old man who is wearing the blue cap?
  8. I ploughed the field where my mother wished to plant the seedlings.
  9. The little girl, whose father had been away for several months, was standing by the door and gazing at the path below.
  10. The reason why Malala left her studies was her family problem. / Her family problem was the reason why Malala left her studies.


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